The Ruma Marker-System detects manipulation agents
The influence of manipulation agents on the analysis of urine samples has been the object of intense scientific research. In this regard, manipulation agents that are supposed to yield a false negative result have been investigated as well as such agents that are supposed to interfere with the analysis itself.
Excerpt from the publication:
This study shows that there are just a few manipulants showing a significant influence on the GCMS result and they all can be detected by the selected tests on manipulants."
For more information see
Adulteration of Urine Samples, Discovery and Mitigation
Huppertz, B., Bartling, C., Baum, K.
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International,
Forms of Manipulation
Sample Substitution - Internal/external Dilution - Chemical Manipulation
Probably the best known form of urine test manipulation is substitution of the sample. In this scenario the sample donor attempts to hand over a "clean" urine sample they brought along instead of their own urine. Bags hidden on the body are used in conjunction with a small tube leading to the genital area, or commercial systems relying on integrated artificial penises. The application of another person's urine into the bladder is also a well known practice.
Conventional direct observation may often detect such forms of sample substitution. However, that's by far not always the case. Comparative studies document that
sample substitution is often successful even with thorough direct observation.
Among others, Prof. Backmund, Board Member of the German Society for Addiction Medicine, addressed this topic in 2007 and reached unambiguous conclusions. Even the additional testing of sample temperature has proven to be of little help because the urine that has been brought along on or in the body will be brought to temperature with small technical devices.
(See: G. Skopp, L. Pötsch, J. Becker, J. Röhrich, R. Mattern: Zur präanalytischen Phase chemisch-toxikologiser Untersuchungen, Rechtsmedizin (1998) 8:163 - 167; Springer-Verlag)
Ingesting one of the different Ruma Markers ensures that the submitted urine sample originates indeed from the right person. The laboratory will test whether the administered marker is present in the sample in sufficient quantity. Further analyses help in determining whether the marker has actually passed through the body of the donor or whether it was added to another person's urine.
Often an attempt is made to dilute the urine sample by drinking lots of fluids before submitting the urine sample or by adding other fluids to the urine sample. As a result, possibly present drugs may be below the cut off. This manipulation method is well documented in scientific literature and it promises success especially with dip tests.
Urine is tested for dilution by measuring the creatinine concentration. Irrespective of whether the sample has been manipulated internally by drinking fluids or externally by adding fluids to the sample, this method has proven to be very reliable.
Even here, the marker provides valuable additional services: if the urine sample containing drugs is diluted with clean urine, the creatinine measurement alone cannot discover this because creatinine concentrations will be within the normal range. However, even this form of dilution can be reliably detected by comparing marker and creatinine concentrations.
Manipulation with chemicals is another method to avoid a positive result in urine testing. In addition to normal household substances such as soap, vinegar, lemon juice or bleaching agents, there is a wide palette of products available on the market that promises a “clean” sample.
Unlike dilution, addition of chemicals is used to make the urine sample unusable for analysis or to destroy the drug molecules.
The Ruma Marker-System uses special, purposeful analytical methods to cover the whole spectrum of chemical manipulation. To this end we took particular care during the development of our procedure to include those commercially available products that make drugs successfully "disappear" in conventional lab analysis.
The Ruma Marker-System is more than just the search for the administered marker. We use 4 pillars to test the urine samples for manipulation from all perspectives:
- Marker analysis
- Creatinine analysis
- Glucose analysis
- Sample integrity analysis
The Marker Analysis determines whether the urine sample contains the administered marker and whether it is present in sufficient quantity. Complete absence of the marker is an indication of sample substitution. Very little marke volume suggests dilution. This applies to dilution with “clean” urine as well.
The Creatinine Analysis examines the dilution level of the urine sample. There is a certain association between creatinine contents and marker contents when our system is used. Now, if urine is diluted with urine and creatinine content should actually be ok, we will discover this form of manipulation through this tie.
The Glucose Analysis ensures that the marker has actually been ingested by the patient and not spat or otherwise brought into a urine sample originating from another person.
The co-administered household sugar is normally metabolized by the body and should not be found in the urine sample. If household sugar is indeed found in the urine, one of the following explanations may apply:
- Body Bypass, i.e. the marker was not actually ingested by the patient
- The patient is suffering from diabetes
- Methadone was not ingested but injected.
The Sample Integrity Analysis tests the urine sample for possible chemical manipulations including pH-value measurement and test for oxidants.
In the following sections, we explain how these analyses interact to discover manipulations.